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Bitter herbs of the Bible

“that same night they are to eat the meat roasted over the fire, along with bitter herbs”

Ex 12:8

Image by Yerson Retamal from Pixabay

Throughout the Bible the term bitter herbs caught my eye…what kind of bitter herbs? I was curious to know more. Ancient Mesopotamia, which includes Iraq, eastern Syria and southeastern Turkey today and ancient Egypt have totally different species of plants. Researchers have tried to list the medicinal plants of the Bible, which has many discrepancies due to species, language and time.

Zochar Amar, professor in the Department of Land of Israel Studies has done extensive research on valid plant names, narrowing the list down to 75 medicinal plant names. His work is still ongoing due to the language barrier between Hebrew and Aramaic terminology of plants.

“This article cites problems of working with identification and misunderstandings in the original Hebrew version. The old translators of the Bible, e.g., King James version (1611) and others, were not familiar with the original Hebrew, nor with the flora of the Holy Land. So, sometimes they mentioned names from their local floras; this might have been done deliberately to make plants more familiar to their own readers.” (1)

Danfi, A. Bock, B. 2019. Medicinal plants of the Bible–revisited. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethomedicine.

From McClintock & Strong, “Biblical Cyclopedia”. “Bitter herb-occurs two places in scripture: Ex 12:8. For Moses commanded the Jews to eat the lamb of Passover with unleavened bread and bitter herbs. The second Passover in the wilderness of Sinai Nu 9:11. It is far more probable that scripture denotes whatever bitter herbs were obtainable in the place where the Passover was eaten. The first directions were in Egypt and the second in Palestine which would have different “bitter herbs”.

“but they are to do it on the fourteenth day of the second month at twilight. They are to eat the lamb, together with unleavened bread and bitter herbs.”

Nu 9:11

5 types of bitter herbs

  • 1. Wild lettuce
  • 2. Endives
  • 3. Garden endive, some say horehound, others tansy, others tops of horseradish, others thistle.
  • 4. Nettle, but some say chamomile.
  • 5. Coriander, others say dandelion.

If we look at the list of 5 bitter herbs above: Wild lettuce, endive, garden endive, nettle and coriander, how were they eaten? We know fresh nettles sting, so it is highly doubtful that they were eaten fresh. Same is to be said for thistle, and chicory.

chicory, called the “liver’s friend” by the Egyptians and consumed in large amounts. It was thought to purify the blood and liver.

From the NKJV American Women’s Bible: the list of bitter herbs were Chicory, dandelion, endive, lettuce, sorrel, and watercress.

In the scripture all the bitter herbs listed with the exception of watercress, are referenced in Ex 12:8, Nu 9:11 as bitter herbs. Endive, a bitter tasting tall, leafy plant, is also referenced in Ge 2:5 as a plant. Endive is related to chicory and used as salad greens.

Dandelion leaves were used as a vegetable and the root was used for making medicine. Lettuce was a weedy, bitter-tasting plant with yellow flower heads. Sorrel, known to the Israelites as sheeps’ sorrel, has a sharp, bitter taste that combined well with other greens to improve their flavor.

Watercress was used for ‘salads’ and for medicinal purposes. It was high in vitamins and iron. Dt 32:2 as ‘new grass’.

“Let my teaching fall like rain

and my words descend like dew,

like showers on new grass,

like abundant rain on tender plants.

Dt 32:2

Image by 아름 김 from Pixabay

So, as you can see, there are many differences of opinion, points of view and just plain differences in types of information on bitter herbs, herbs, medicinal herbs and flowers of the Bible.

Next blog is on Herbs of the Bible, be sure to check it out.


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Using lavender with patients at the end of life.

The purpose of this blog is not to replace traditional allopathic care, but to complement care modulating pain or easing anxiety.

If people prefer alternative medicine can essential oils or herbal preparations give relief?

Lavender essential oil is easy to find and popular in the mainstream market. Inhaling lavender essential oil – a drop on a tissue or on an inhaler stick can relax, reducing agitation that may arise in the end of life.

Yes, using essential oils via inhalation can provide relief without using essential oil preparations on the skin.

The studies of using lavender essential oil in many ways in addition to other palliative care is proven through studies listed below:
The International Journal of Caring Sciences published an article in the January-April 2020 issue going into depth on using essential oils at the end of life. The studies mentioned used lavender in a variety of ways, inhalation, massage etc., in pediatric and colorectal cancer patients.

Reference the article below:
Usage of Aromatherapy in Symptom Management in Cancer Patients: A Systematic Review
Baykal Dilek, PhD Assistant Professor, Halic University, School of Nursing. Istanbul, Turkey.
Comlekci Necmiye, Research Assistant, Bartin University, Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Nursing. Bartin, Turkey
Correspondence: Baykal Dilek, Assistant Professor. Halic University, School of Nursing. Istanbul, Turkey.

Linalool and linalyl acetate are the chemical components that are responsible for the therapeutic actions on the CNS (Central Nervous System). Among the many therapeutic actions attributed to linalool: analgesic, antianxiety, antinociceptive, antispasmodic, cognition enhancement and sedative are useful for the end of life patient.

Using lavender with a patient

Making an inhaler with 15 drops of lavender essential oil and keeping it by the bed allows the patient to use the inhaler when they want to. If the patient is not able, keep the inhaler at bedside, so the caregiver to assist.

Use lavender in a diffuser, 30 minutes on and then 30 minutes off. This can be calming to everyone in the room.

A lavender sachet can be placed near the bedside.

A simple rice sock (an old sock filled with rice; add 3-4 drops of lavender) can be heated 20-30 seconds in the microwave for comfort.

A lavender wand can refresh in the room and is pretty to look at.

Adding 5-6 drops of lavender essential oil (Lavendula angustifolia) to an unscented lotion or cream is a 1% dilution. A lotion of this dilution is generally safe for elderly or compromised patients. Always check with the doctor to be sure.

Linalool is present in over 200 essential oils. In lavender oil, according to Tisserand, (2nd edition Essential oil safety, pg. 585) there is 25 – 45% linalool.

There are other oils that have more linalool than lavender.

Have these been studied?

Could Ho Wood at 95% or another oil be used instead of lavender?…..that is for another blog.

Happy Blending,


A faithful person will be richly blessed.

Proverbs 28:20

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Using herbs and essential oils at the end of life

Image by Gerd Altmann from Pixabay

Using essential oils and herbs at the end of life.
What does the end of life look like to you?
How do you want to spend the last moments of life?

This is the first part in a series of essential oils and herbs to use in the end of life.

I personally want to be comforted, soothed by the essential oils and herbs that I love and cherish.
There is chamomile tea for agitation and slight nausea, also to help me sleep if it is steeped longer.
There are ginger inhalers or a tincture that is in my cabinet, use that tincture in juice if it seems too strong. It is great for nausea.

Frankincense is great, burn some resin in the burner. Not the charcoal burner, but the brass one with a tealight underneath. Just put a little frankincense on the top. Not the sweet smelling one…it does nauseate me.
I like opopanax and myrrh too, so the mixture is fine.

The lavender vanilla candle is a change and citruses are a favorite…just like the tangerine Yankee candle.
Just remember to only burn something for 30 minutes max, so that it isn’t too overpowering.

After I have sipped my tea and read a passage from the Bible app, let me nap a little.
We can talk later.


The Lord is gracious to the humble.

Proverbs 3:34